Bound Carbohydrates in Nature (Lezioni Lincee) by Leonard Warren
By Leonard Warren
Certain carbohydrates are an immense and interesting subject in biochemical and melanoma examine. in line with a chain of invited lectures, this e-book makes a speciality of the detailed function that sure carbohydrates play in nature and replicate the author's amazing occupation in biochemical examine. another issues coated are the homes of membrane glycoproteins, excited by the resistance of cells to medications, and the metabolism of sugars and sialic acids, either one of which shape a pivotal position within the author's experiences. The booklet chronicles just a few of the massive advances which have been made in biochemistry during the last few many years.
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Extra resources for Bound Carbohydrates in Nature (Lezioni Lincee)
It is not known, at present, how much the amino acid sequence around, or even distant from, the glycosylated amino acid influences the final form of the carbohydrate polymer. As we saw, one glycosylation step can determine whether a subsequent addition of a sugar can take place directly to the first sugar, or to another, remote sugar in the oligosaccharide. The amount of activated sugar may be an important factor, as well as the level of a specific sugar transferase activity, which is genetically determined, and may vary during embryonic development or may change in malignancy.
The absence of sialic acids in tunicates is surprising because they are believed to have arisen later in evolution than the echinoderms. Sialic acids are not present, or their distribution is sporadic, outside of these groups. For instance, they are not found in yeast, fungi, algae, lichens, or plants, but they are present in a few bacteria - some strains of Escherichia coli (K235), Neisseria meningitidis strain 1908, citrobacter, salmonella, and others. , 1974) and in Trypanosoma cruzi (Corfield and Schauer, 1982).
They are carriers of blood group and tumor antigens and are receptors or can modulate receptor activity at the cell surface. They are probably an important determinant of the character of the membrane itself (charge, permeability). When cells or whole fish embryos (Medaka) are grown in the presence of PDMP (l-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-lpropanol), a structural analog of ceramide and an inhibitor of glycosylceramide synthetase, glycolipid synthesis is sharply curtailed, metabolic labeling with radioactive sugars is reduced by over 75%, and the glycolipid content and several tissue-specific Cambridge Books Online © Cambridge University Press, 2010 Cambridge Books Online © Cambridge University Press, 2012 20 Carbohydrates of glycoproteins glycolipid antigens are dramatically reduced.