Biologia I by Patricia Castaneda Pezo, ... et al. .

By Patricia Castaneda Pezo, ... et al. .

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165) When an electric field is applied to an electrolyte solution, both positive and negative ions will drift across a chosen transit plane of unit area in 2. Basic Principles 48 opposite directions. If v+ and t;_ are the drift velocities of positive and negative ions, then all positive ions within a distance of v+ cm from the transit plane will move across it in 1 s. Therefore, the flux J is given by J+ = C + (166) v+ - 3 (C+ = mol c m ) . Current density J is given by / + = z+FJ+ = Z+FC+V+. In general, one can write Ij = ZjFCjVj.

8. Schematic representation of a galvanic cell. II. Electrostatics 33 The origin of #" n depends on the nature of the source. Irrespective of the origin of the source, an equivalent nonelectrostatic field can be defined by the equation or Fn = qEn En = &Jq. When the source is on open circuit as in Fig. 8, the charges are in equilibrium a n d the resultant field £ , the sum of Ee and £ n , must be zero at every point. Thus E = Ee + En = 0 or Ee = —En. Hence on open circuit, b \ aEJl= -faEndl = a \ bEndl.

11. T h e network of Fig. 10b giving magnitudes a n d directions of resistors a n d emfs to illustrate Kirchhoff's laws. III. Physical and Electrochemical Principles resistance is given by i = nE/(R + 37 nr). When R » nr, i = nE/R. That is, the current is n times greater than that of a single cell. When r » R, i = E/r. This means that the current is approximately the same as in a single cell. If n cells are placed in parallel in the circuit of external resistance R, the emf remains the same. The internal resistance is reduced n times.

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