Bioenergetics 3, 3rd Edition by David G. Nicholls, Stuart J. Ferguson,
By David G. Nicholls, Stuart J. Ferguson,
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Extra resources for Bioenergetics 3, 3rd Edition
Consistent with the proposal that mitochondria and chloroplasts evolved from respiring or photosynthetic bacteria, energy-conserving membranes tend to have distinctive lipid compositions: 10% of the mitochondrial inner membrane lipid is cardiolipin, while only 16% of the chloroplast thylakoid membrane lipid is phospholipid, the remainder being galactolipids (40%), sulfolipids (4%) and photosynthetic pigments (40%). Despite this heterogeneity of lipid composition, the native and ionophore-induced permeability properties of the bilayer regions of the different membranes are sufficiently similar to justify extrapolations between energy-transducing membranes and artificial bilayer preparations.
3,2 '~,msss, ..... ENE:RGY" ................. AND: DmSPLACEMENT~ ~ ..... ~ .... ' ......... FRO~ i. ~~~ ~ Since the first edition of Bioenergetics we have taken a rather unorthodox approach to Gibbs energy changes. Whereas the classical physical chemistry approach emphasizes standard free energies (a hypothetical condition where all components are present at unit activity), we prefer to discuss reactions purely in terms of displacement from equilibrium. This leads to considerably simpler, more intuitive and more symmetrical equations without sacrificing precision.
The curve shows the following features: (a) The Gibbs energy content G is at a minimum when the reaction is at equilibrium. Thus any change in F away from the equilibrium ratio requires an increase in the Gibbs energy content of the system and so cannot occur spontaneously. (b) The slope of the curve is zero at equilibrium. g. by replacing the reacted A and removing excess B as it is formed) would cause no change in the Gibbs energy content. Another way of saying this is that the slope AG (in units of kJmo1-1) is zero at equilibrium.