Basic Science for Core Medical Training and the MRCP by coll.

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The new and original segments are united by DNA ligase. The G2 phase DNA molecule being replicated 3' 5' Okazaki fragments In the G2 phase that follows the S phase, biosynthetic activity is, again, high as the cell synthesizes proteins, such as microtubules, required for the mitotic process that will follow. The G2 checkpoint marks the end of interphase after which cells enter the M phase. The transition is arrested if DNA is damaged or replication is incomplete (by damaging DNA, radiotherapy and some chemotherapeutic agents arrest cell proliferation at this checkpoint).

H+ ions H+ ions are highly reactive with proteins, eliciting confor­ mational changes that alter their function. Cell metabolism and inward leak of H+ ions attracted by the negative inside membrane potential, subjects cells to constant acid loading. Cytosolic pH is maintained close to neutrality by the extrusion of H+ ions by ATPases and the secondary active transporter Na+−H+ exchanger, or by influx of HCO3− on other carriers. Osmolyte content Changes in intracellular osmolyte content, such as might be associated with metabolic activity or uptake of nutrients, causes water to move by osmosis through aquaporins, eliciting changes in cytosolic volume.

Polymerase I also has a proof-reading role—it possesses exonuclease activity, which allows it to remove mismatched nucleotides at the 3′ terminus of the DNA chain before polymerization continues. An endonuclease can cleave damaged DNA chains (for example, following exposure to ultraviolet light), allowing polymerase I to synthesize a new stretch of DNA to replace that excised by its exonuclease activity. The new and original segments are united by DNA ligase. The G2 phase DNA molecule being replicated 3' 5' Okazaki fragments In the G2 phase that follows the S phase, biosynthetic activity is, again, high as the cell synthesizes proteins, such as microtubules, required for the mitotic process that will follow.

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