Basic Principles in Applied Catalysis by Friedrich Schmidt (auth.), Professor Dr. Manfred Baerns

By Friedrich Schmidt (auth.), Professor Dr. Manfred Baerns (eds.)

Written by way of a workforce of across the world well-known specialists, this publication addresses crucial different types of catalytic reactions and catalysts as utilized in commercial perform. either utilized facets and the fundamental clinical rules are defined. the most issues should be summarized as follows: heterogeneous, homogeneous and biocatalysis, catalyst education and characterization, catalytic response engineering and kinetics, catalyst deactivation and commercial perspective.

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128, 129], and by Burch and coworkers [130-132]. In recent patents by Saudi Basic similar compounds (MoNINb/P/O) have been reported to perform excellently in the oxidation of ethane to acetic acid [133]. A second class of catalysts include V/P mixed oxides, and in particular one with a well-defined crystalline structure, vanadyl pyrophosphate (VO)2PP7' (the catalyst which is used industrially for n-butane oxidation to maleic anhydride), claimed by The Standard Oil Co [134-136]. The same company claims the use of a fluidized-bed reactor for carrying out the reaction, with feeding of fresh ethane and oxygen and recycling most of the reactor effluents after separation of acetic acid.

A further advantage of this configuration is that the reactants are kept separate, so as to avoid any flammability hazard; it is thus possible to feed undiluted fuels. Most publications which describe the use of membrane reactors deal with methane oxidative coupling [103-106]; a few papers have described the oxidehydrogenation of propane to propylene [107-109]. In the latter case, either a V/Mg/O based catalyst was used, or a Vp/,y-AIP3 based catalyst; in both cases the active component was coated in the form of a thin layer over the ceramic (lalumina membrane.

0 [171-174]. The most striking case is the V/Sb/O system, for which the following composition for a V/Sb 111 catalyst has been reported, deduced by careful structural studies: Vo92Sbo9P4 [173]. 04 cationic positions unoccupied for each 0 2anion, contains Sbs+ (the only antimony ion which is present), while vanadium is present both as V4+ and as V 3+. The electroneutrality is guaranteed for the composition voztVo6tSbo9,'+04 [175]. However, the ratio between V3+ and V4+ can vary depending on the method of preparation (of particular importance is obviously the atmosphere and temperature of thermal treatment).

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