Axonal Regeneration in the Mammalian Central Nervous System: by Dorothy Eve Oorschot, David Gareth Jones (auth.)
By Dorothy Eve Oorschot, David Gareth Jones (auth.)
This cutting-edge evaluate hyperlinks the experimental info right into a cohesive and important account of CNS regeneration. study findings are mentioned when it comes to their relevance to at least one (or extra) of 13 hypotheses taken with regeneration within the mammalian CNS. study findings reviewed contain: regeneration in constructing mammals and in submammalian vertebrates, using transplants and/or pharmacological remedies, in vitro reports on neurotrophic and neurite selling elements and their capability relevance to CNS regeneration in vivo, and in vitro experiences at the kinds of glial cells that could be accountable for improving or suppressing axonal re-growth.
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Additional info for Axonal Regeneration in the Mammalian Central Nervous System: A Critique of Hypotheses
1983a) occurs. Kimmel and Moyer (1947) argue that failure to penetrate into the CNS (Table 4) is due to large numbers of macro phages at the transitional zone forming an impenetrable barrier. In contrast, Bignami et al. (1984a) point to a lack of neurotrophic factors or a basal lamina barrier, while others (Reier et al. 1983a; Carlstedt et al. 1987; Liuzzi and Lasek 1987) assign an inhibitory role to astrocytes. Using the dorsal root entry zone into the CNS, Barnes and Worrall (1968; Table 4) reported that grafted cholinergic ventral roots regenerate into the dorsal root, across the transitional zone, and establish functional synaptic contacts within the spinal cord.
For example, Gelderd et al. (1980) reported that two out of ten animals were able to support their own weight after treatment with DMSO and hyperbaric oxygen (HBO). Likewise, in a more recent study by these workers, the supposed beneficial effects of these two treatment regimes were based upon the presence of hindlimb weight-bearing ability in two out of ten animals at 60-70 days post-lesion (Gelderd et al. 1983). Such results highlight the variable response of animals to treatment following spinal cord injury, as well as the caution that needs to be exercised in extrapolating the potential usefulness of DMSO and the role of tissue necrosis in regeneration.
1984). Thus, although the somal reaction to axonal severance seems to be intimately associated with regeneration, little emphasis has been placed on this response (Barron 1983b). What is needed is 35 more research on the way in which changes in the periaxonal environment affect the somal molecular responses by the neuron. 5 The Use of Transplants Transplants of nervous and non-nervous tissue have been used extensively in research on CNS regeneration. Studies using transplants of nervous tissue primarily address the role of glial cells in regeneration (discussed in Sects.