Atmospheric Oxidation and Antioxidants. Volume II, Edition: by Gerald Scott (Auth.)

By Gerald Scott (Auth.)

Oxidation via molecular oxygen is among the such a lot essentially vital of all chemical tactics. it's the foundation of power construction in animals and, whilst, a massive reason behind irreversible deterioration and supreme loss of life. guy makes use of oxygen certainly within the construction of power by way of combustion, and lots of vital business approaches within the petrochemical are in line with the managed oxidation of hydrocarbons. whilst, oxidation is the most reason for deterioration of foodstuffs and of many business polymers. it's of serious sensible value that the mechanisms of oxidation and its prevention might be understood to be able to make the most of the reactions of oxygen extra successfully yet, both vital, to manage the hostile results of oxygen on man-made items and in organic structures. the 3 volumes of this paintings are directed in the direction of those targets. even though complementary to each other, the 3 volumes shape a unmarried entire and it's was hoping that, through widespread cross-reference, readers may be enabled to make use of principles and adventure from different disciplines to enlighten their very own. the second one quantity examines the oxidation chemistry of carbon-based fabrics in additional aspect with emphasis at the technological phenomena that consequence from the assault of oxygen and the sensible tactics built to avoid them

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Atmospheric Oxidation and Antioxidants. Volume II, Edition: 2 Sub

Oxidation via molecular oxygen is among the such a lot virtually vital of all chemical methods. it's the foundation of strength construction in animals and, even as, a massive reason for irreversible deterioration and supreme demise. guy makes use of oxygen certainly within the creation of power through combustion, and lots of very important business procedures within the petrochemical are according to the managed oxidation of hydrocarbons.

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Much of the seminal work on hydrocarbon oxidation and metal cata- 29 LUBRICATING OIL OXIDATION AND STABILISATION lysis, carried out in the 1940s and 1950s, involved the use of oxygen absorption techniques on pure hydrocarbons, but industry tests now rely more on following chemical and physical changes which occur during oxida­ tion, such as viscosity increase, molecular weight changes, increases in acid number (TAN), pentane insolubles and changes in infra-red spectra on fully formulated oils [78].

A, no additive; B, primary alkyl ZDDP; C, ZDDP + dispersant; D, ZDDP + dispersant + Ca sulphonate; E, ZDDP + dispersant + Mg sulphonate. Reprinted by permission from I and EC Research, 26 (1987) 1888-1895. © (1987) American Chemical Society. based Mg or Ca sulphonate detergents brought about no change in the chemical shift values. The absence of major physical interactions between dispersants and detergents at ambient temperature would not account for their antagonistic effects on the activity of ZDDPs at 165°C, a more satis­ factory explanation being that the basic additives neutralise the sulphuroxy acids which are formed from ZDDPs [19,193].

6 [(Pr i 02)PS 2 ]2Cu [Et2NCS2]2Cu [172] [144] [144] [172] 48 T. COLCLOUGH 179]. This involves titration of residual antioxidant species by peroxy radi­ cals formed at a constant rate from a free radical initiator, azoisobutyronitrile, at 60°C, and has been used to measure the antioxidant capacity and thickening characteristics of Sequence III oils [26,179]. Korcek and co-workers also developed a high temperature oxidation test for measuring the effects of antioxidants on inhibition periods, and this has been combined with the Free Radical Titration Technique to determine the high tempera­ ture antioxidant capabilities of basestocks and fully formulated oils [179183].

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