Applied Anatomy of the Back by Professor Dr. med. Josef Rickenbacher, Professor Dr. med.

By Professor Dr. med. Josef Rickenbacher, Professor Dr. med. Alex M. Landolt, Professor Dr. med. Karl Theiler, Professor Dr. med. Heinrich Scheier, Professor Dr. med. Jean Siegfried, Professor Dr. med. Franz J. Wagenhäuser (auth.)

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19) become unidentifiable only in the coccygeal vertebrae. In the cervical region they form the anterior tubercles, in the lumbar region the sturdy costal (transverse) processes. In the sacrum they give rise to the anterior component of each lateral part. Roughly speaking, the vertebral bodies look rectangular in the cervical region, semicircular in the thoraeie region and reniform in the lumbar region. The spinous process of each cervical vertebra (C VII excepted) is bifid. The atlas has no spinous process, only a superficial posterior tubercle.

Abnormalities of notochord associated with eleft vertebral bodies Notochord black, ossification centers grey (THEILER 1953) part (DIETHELM 1974; TÖNDURY 1958). The result may be an unossified central canal in the vertebral body or conical depressions in the upper and lower end-plates. c) Incomplete Vertebral Bodies Investigations in animals have shown that faults in the formation of the primitive segments are the most frequent cause of hemivertebrae, wedge-shaped vertebrae and block vertebrae. The consequence of ablastemal irregularity may be a wedge-shaped vertebra, absence of half a vertebra (hemivertebra) or fusion (of greater or lesser extent) of two vertebral anlagen (Figs.

The intervertebral disc anlagen are partly abnormal. SI and S II each have divided ossification centers. (From THEILER 1953) cartilage caps encirc1e the ossification center and are continued on to the circumference of the vertebra, where the bone forms a raised rim (Fig. 71). Calcification of the vertebral rim begins posteriorly and finally extends around the whole circumference (SCHAJOWICZ 1938). Ossification centers eventually appear in the calcified zone. These become confluent to form a bony vertebral rim, i.

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