Applications of Robotics and Artificial Intelligence to by National Research Council

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Extra resources for Applications of Robotics and Artificial Intelligence to Reduce Risk and Improve Effectiveness: A Study for the United States Army

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It is generally agreed that the three main components of an industrial robot are the mechanical manipulator, the actuation mechanism, and the controller. The mechanical manipulator of an IR is made up of a set of axes (either rotary or slide) , typically three to six axes per IR. The first three axes determine the work envelope of the IR, while the last three deal with the wrist of the IR and the ability to orient the hand. Figure 1 shows the four basic IR configurations. Although these are typical of robot configurations in use today, there are no hard and fast rules that impose these constraints.

That is, one defines important points in the workspace via the teach-box method and then instructs the robot with language statements controlling interpolation between points and speed. This capability coupled with access to online storage and simple sensor (binary) control characterizes the VAL language. VAL, developed by Unimation for the Puma robot, was the first commercially available language. Several similar languages are now available, but each has deficiencies. They are not languages in the classical computer science sense, but they do begin to bridge the gap.

Technology transfer. The preponderance of practitioners are in the universities and have only recently been moving to industry, primarily to venture activities. com 40 APPLICATIONS OF ROBOTICS AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE • • considerations). The transfer of knowledge to industry at large is thus rarely done by those with knowledge of both industry and the technology, which makes the industrialization process more risky. Premature determination of results. The risk exists of unwittingly predetermining the outcome of decisions that should be made after further research and development.

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