Animal Physiology: Adaptation and Environment by Knut Schmidt-Nielsen

By Knut Schmidt-Nielsen

During this revised, up-to-date, two-color variation of the acclaimed textual content Animal body structure, Knut Schmidt-Nielsen introduces and develops the basic ideas of animal body structure in keeping with significant environmental features--oxygen, meals and effort, temperature, and water. The publication is dependent just like the former variation, yet each bankruptcy has been up-to-date take into consideration contemporary advancements, with quite a few new references and figures. New and multiplied gains comprise: huge adjustments to the bankruptcy on circulation, Muscle and Biomechanics; new fabric on breathing pigments; feeding and digestion in shrimp and hoatzin; plant protection compounds; diving in seals; hot temperature tolerance; the patch clamp technique for ion channel examine; the pineal gland and melatonin. Two-color all through for transparent description and representation of primary ideas.

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Fq - Vn,r 2 AQUATIC RESPIRATION Some of the simplest arrangements tory gas Many exchange are found small organisms obtain oxygen by diffusion through their body surfaces, without having any special respiratory organs In this equation for respira- in aquatic animals. and without circulating 6K gen mosphere, as F 02 is the concentration of oxy- at the surface expressed in fractions of cm 3 V 02 is an at- the rate of oxygen consumption of oxygen per cm 3 tissue per minute, the radius of the sphere in centimeters, and r is K is the diffusion constant in square centimeters per * In a gas the to the pressures fusion.

Which no he- shall return later to and how they can these interesting fish is live with- out the normal oxygen-carrying mechanism of the et al. 1969). Because the lamellae close, no more than 7 in the sense that there than actu- Similar calculations dozen other species of fish showed blood. To move water over the gills, combined pumping action of teleost fish use a the mouth and the opercular covers, aided by suitable valves to con- ble set A model of this pump is shown in The system actually consists of a douof pumps.

5 the toad Bufo americanus [Hutchison et al. 1968] oxygen consumption is in temperatures. at different high, the uptake through the lungs increases several-fold and far exceeds the The cutaneous uptake. fact that oxygen uptake through the skin remains nearly constant throughout the year is oxygen conwhich provides a related to the constant centration in the atmosphere, constant diffusion head. If the oxygen concentra- low through tion in the blood remains uniformly the year, the diffusion through the skin should not change much, change very for diffusion rates Because the need with temperature.

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