American Indian Languages: The Historical Linguistics of by Lyle Campbell

By Lyle Campbell

Local American languages are spoken from Siberia to Greenland, and from the Arctic to Tierra del Fuego; they contain the southernmost language of the realm (Yaghan) and a few of the northernmost (Eskimoan). Campbell's undertaking is to take inventory of what's at the moment identified in regards to the background ofNative American languages and within the procedure study the kingdom of yankee Indian ancient linguistics, and the good fortune and failure of its a number of methodologies. there's remarkably little consensus within the box, mostly because of the 1987 ebook of Language within the Americas via Joseph Greenberg. He claimed to track a ancient relation among all American Indian languages of North and South the US, implying that almost all of the Western Hemisphere wassettled via a unmarried wave of immigration from Asia. This has triggered excessive controversy and Campbell, as a number one pupil within the box, intends this quantity to be, partially, a reaction to Greenberg...

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For example, Kroeber's view was that IndoEuropeanist methods were too philosophicaltypological, too concerned with "inner form" (see the discussion of von Humboldt that follows), whereas the Americanists' methods reflected the practical ethnological expediency of AMERICAN INDIAN LANGUAGES classifying native groups, of "forc[ing] order out of this chaos" (Kroeber 1913:370). Moreover, "the European methods of discussing and establishing linguistic relationship are based on theoretical assumptions of philologists; the American methods were worked out by ethnologists for practical ethnological rather than philological purposes.

It is still spoken fairly extensively along the Rio Negro and elsewhere in pockets in the Amazon region. The Nheengatu spoken today is different from both Tupinamba and the Lingua Geral recorded in the eighteenth century, for it has undergone several structural simplifications. For example, it reduced the system of demonstratives from one containing contrasts of visible/invisible and 'this'/'that'/'that yonder' to a system with only two forms, 'this' and 'that'. The personal pronouns were reduced from various plural forms for 'inclusive' and 'exclusive' to only one.

It has also been called the Micmac-Basque Pidgin, as well as Souriquois (Smith 1994); a Pidgin Basque-Montagnais (called Montagnais Pidgin Basque in Smith [1994]) has also been mentioned, and may be associated with it. If it is accurately identified, this Basque-Algonquian Pidgin is perhaps the oldest pidgin attested in North America, thought to have been spoken ca. 1540-1640 (Bakker 1987, 1989a, 1989b). Little is known of Pidgin Massachusett aside from its existence. It may have connections with Delaware Jargon or with the broader pidgin Algonquian referred to above (Goddard 1977:41), American Indian Pidgin English Ives Goddard (1977) demonstrates many Algonquian forms in the attestations of American Indian Pidgin English, used in New England along with Pidgin Massachusett (Goddard 1977, 1978b; Leechman and Hall 1955; M.

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