Advances in Clinical Child Psychology: Volume 20 by Barbara Maughan, Michael Rutter (auth.), Thomas H.
By Barbara Maughan, Michael Rutter (auth.), Thomas H. Ollendick, Ronald J. Prinz (eds.)
It is with either delight and unhappiness that we post the 20th and final quantity of Advances in scientific baby Psychology. This sequence has obvious a protracted and winning run beginning below the editorship of Ben Lahey and Alan Kazdin, who handed the baton to us at quantity 14. we're thankful to the various individuals through the years and to the Plenum employees for generating a top quality product in a well timed demeanour. This quantity covers a various array of vital themes. within the open ing bankruptcy, Maughan and Rutter discover the examine literatures regarding continuity and discontinuity of delinquent habit from early life to maturity. Their assessment and conceptualization emphasize the importance of hyperactivity and inattention, early-onset behavior difficulties, low reac tivity to emphasize, and terrible peer kinfolk as in all probability influential variables within the patience of delinquent habit. Social cognitions, environmental continuities, substance abuse, cumulative chains of existence occasions, and protec tive tactics are regarded as well.
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Direct behavioral continuities were apparent, but peer-mediated effects accounted for up to half of the associations observed. Caspi, Elder, and Herbener (1990), tracing adult outcomes of men with early histories of temper tantrums, reported a similar pattern. Impulsive personality styles persisted to adulthood; in addition, however, progressive deteriorations in occupational status derived in part from indirect effects of truncated educational careers. In a parallel way, Kerner et a1. (1995) argued for dynamic processes in the development of criminal careers, whereby the cumulating effects of behaviors, attributions, sanctions, and stigma across the life course progressively limit options for escape into nondeviant pathways and increase risks of persistence in crime.
First and most basic, longitudinal, repeated measurements on the same individuals are needed both before and after the postulated turning point. Weak measures of behavior may give rise to artifactual impressions of change. , 1992). , 1992). Third, equally careful attention is needed in delineating aspects of the experiences postulated to be involved in turning-point effects. Marriage per se, for example, may have little effect on desistance from offending (West, 1982). A more specific focus on those aspects of relationships theoretically assumed to be of importance-harmonious, supportive marriages that can foster positive social bonds-has revealed a quite different pattern (Quinton & Rutter, 1988; Sampson & Laub, 1993).
14 BARBARA MAUGHAN AND MICHAEL RUITER though we must await multivariate quantitative genetic studies to identify the behaviors for which genes code, several pointers to the form of the associations are already available. Here, adoption studies have reported gene-environment interactions for a number of antisocial outcomes (Bohman, 1996; Cadoret, Yates, Troughton, Woodworth, & Stewart, 1995; Crowe, 1974). Though neither the genetic nor the environmental influences involved here has been specified in any detail as yet, the pattern of findings points to what has been described as genetic control of sensitivity to the environment (Kendler & Eaves, 1986): The genetic factors contributing to antisocial traits depend heavily for their expression on exposure to adverse environmental circumstances.