Acoustics of Musical Instruments (Modern Acoustics and by Antoine Chaigne
By Antoine Chaigne
This publication, the 1st English-language translation of Acoustique des tools de musique, moment Edition, presents the required foundations for realizing the advanced actual phenomena taken with musical instruments. What is the functionality of the labium in a flute? Which beneficial properties of an tool let us make a transparent audible contrast among a clarinet and a trumpet? With the aid of quite a few examples, those questions are addressed in detail. The authors concentration particularly at the major effects received within the box over the past fifteen years. Their aim is to teach that simple actual versions can be utilized with profit for numerous functions in sound synthesis, tool making, and sound recording. The e-book is basically addressed to graduate scholars and researchers; but it may be of curiosity for engineers, musicians, craftsmen, and track enthusiasts who desire to know about the fundamentals of musical acoustics.
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Extra info for Acoustics of Musical Instruments (Modern Acoustics and Signal Processing)
Wood, for example, is an orthotropic material, which is a special case of anisotropy. To be convinced of such a behavior, a simple experiment can be made which consists in bending a guitar soundboard in Spruce with the hands. The experienced rigidity is higher when the bending is applied in the direction of the ﬁbers compared to the case where the bending moment is applied in a direction perpendicular to them. More generally, for an orthotropic material, we can distinguish three orthogonal directions: longitudinal (L), radial (R), and tangential (T) (see Fig.
The bending of such a bar is well described by a model of a bar with variable cross-section 20 A. Chaigne and J. 47) The hypothesis of isotropic material yields the stress tensor. Here, we write [see Eq. 26)] xx D E"xx , since the Poisson’s effect is neglected. Let us now express the elastic potential energy, also called strain energy, of the bending bar. For an elementary spring of stiffness k, the elastic energy stored under the effect of a traction (or compression) of elongation x from equilibrium is Ep D 12 kx2 .
Using more recent materials, such as carbon ﬁber and composites, it is possible to control the elastic properties in all three directions . Today, a number of soundboards of stringed instruments are made by mixing, in various proportions, wood and carbon ﬁbers . It will be seen in Chap. 13 that the choice of materials in instrument making is not only governed by static considerations but also by radiation criteria, which is fully understandable for musical instruments. 16 A. Chaigne and J.