A Grammar of Wandala (Mouton Grammar Library [Mgl]) by Zygmunt Frajzyngier

By Zygmunt Frajzyngier

Wandala is a hitherto undescribed valuable Chadic language spoken in Northern Cameroon and Northeastern Nigeria. The Grammar of Wandala describes, in a non-aprioristic procedure, phonology, morphology, syntax, and all useful domain names grammaticalized within the language. The grammatical constitution of Wandala is kind of diverse from the constitution of alternative Chadic languages defined up to now in either the formal skill and the capabilities which were grammaticalized. The grammar offers proofs for the postulated hypotheses referring to kinds and features. The grammar is written in a mode available to linguists operating inside of various theoretical frameworks.

The phonology is characterised by way of a wealthy consonantal procedure, a 3 vowel process, and a tone method. The language has plentiful vowel insertion principles and a vowel concord method. Vowel deletion marks phrase-internal place, and vowel-insertion marks phrase-final place. the 2 principles let the parsing of the clause into materials. The language has 3 different types of reduplication of verbs, of which code aspectual and modal differences. The unfavourable paradigms of verbs fluctuate from affirmative paradigms within the coding of subject.

The pronominal affixes and wide process of verbal extensions code the grammatical and semantic family in the clause. Wandala has strange clausal constitution, in that during a pragmatically impartial verbal clause, there's just one nominal argument, both the topic or the item. those arguments can stick to a number of ingredients. The grammatical function of that argument is coded by way of inflectional markers at the verb and so much curiously, on no matter what lexical or grammatical morpheme precedes the constituent. The markers of grammatical relatives further to verbs are varied for various periods of verbs.

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There is a fundamental difference in Wandala between the relativization of the subject and the relativization of other grammatical relations. The relativization of the subject involves placing the nominal subject in the clause-initial position, and additional coding of the subject through the subject pronoun. The relativization of the object involves placing the nominal object in the clause-initial position and the pronominal subject before the verb and a nominal or pronominal subject after the verb.

No such phenomenon has been recorded, and attempts to produce such a form were roundly rejected by speakers: (12) tà já-mmè 3PL unite-COL ‘they met (on the road)’ *tà jàh-ə́-mmè 3PL unite-EP COL ‘they met (on the road)’ Nasals n án ‘associative preposition’. m m ‘spatial specifier ‘IN’, mákè ‘week’. ɲ ɲàmlàkè ‘dirty, ɲáŋà ‘put in order’. The consonant ɲ is produced without a palatal glide. After the initial contact of the tongue with the palatal region, the tongue remains at the bottom of the mouth.

7. Underlying u Mirt claims that the vowel [u] is an allophone of schwa occurring in the environment of velar and sometimes bilabial consonants. Given that schwa is not considered an underlying vowel in the present work, a different approach is required. : hùɗè ‘belly’, ɗùksá ‘thing’, ʃúlà ‘travel’. In this position, the vowel u is in contrast with the vowels a and i. As it is in contrastive distribution, it must be postulated to be underlying. The vowel u also occurs, albeit rarely, in word-final position: ŋázù ‘that which’.

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