A Critical Study in Method by Haig Khatchadourian M.A., Ph.D. (auth.)

By Haig Khatchadourian M.A., Ph.D. (auth.)

It is neither far-fetched nor over-modest to imagine that a few readers will believe that one other ebook on philosophical research is superfluous, considering there are at this time a few tremendous books, essays or col­ lections of essays at the topic. a part of the explanation which makes me wish that the current ebook isn't really superfluous is that its goal isn't like that of a lot of those books or essays. What i personally have at­ tempted to do is to stipulate my very own perspectives in regards to the nature and attainable kinds and types of philosophical research: the results of sustained mirrored image at the topic for the earlier few years. The tools of analy­ sis which are the following considered as "proper," and in a better or lesser measure philosophically helpful equipment aren't, of their normal positive factors, quite whatever new. they're endorsed or are literally being practised by way of assorted modern philosophers; and a few of them have an extended and hallowed historical past at the back of them. besides the fact that, the current paintings makes an attempt to offer those tools in a kind or demeanour which, it's was hoping, will cause them to applicable, or much less inacceptable, to philosophers with widely-divergent attitudes or biases. a big function of the e-book is that not anyone process or kind of strategy is thought of as the correct approach or form of approach to philosophical research to the exclusion of others; in sharp distinction to the perspectives or perform of various modern philosophers.

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It can also be readily shown that a concept is also not identical with the class of things which are named by that expression (its comprehension, in C. I. Lewis' use of this word). In the light of this discussion, our earlier statements about the connotation of an expression 'X' and its relation to 'X's' meaning on the one hand and concept X on the other hand, can be simply restated as follows: If and when we understand the meaning of an expression 'X: and if we analyse this meaning, we find that it provides us with a condition or set of conditions for 'X's' correct application.

We have distinguished "meaning" and "uses of expressions in the language" as a whole. Likewise we must distinguish a given expression's particular meaning(s) and the various particular uses it has: the particular picture(s) or image(s) it may evoke in the contexts of its use, the emotional and dynamic reactions it tends to evoke in hearers or readers; and so on. Using the word 'horse' to draw someone's attention to a certain member of the species Equus caballus involves its application to some state of affairs in accordance with one of its ordinary meanings ("correctly," "properly" as we say); and this way of using or applying the expression is a "semantic use" of it.

It is only hoped that some progress will be made in the right direction, which may eventually lead to an account that satisfies the majority of reflective minds. There is not, and, to my mind, there cannot be, a single completely adequate or completely precise analysis of synonymity, holding true of aU pairs of synonymous expressions - not even one which holds true of all words, or all phrases, or all sentences alone. 1 All the accounts or analyses with which I am familiar suffer from some fatal flaw.

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