A Basic Course in Algebraic Topology by Massey
A easy path in Algebraic Topology
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Extra resources for A Basic Course in Algebraic Topology
95 The international influence also softened the political ethos of patrimonialism and put an end to brutal practices necessitated by the excessive 30 Rise of the Modern State and the Transformation of Society personalism of the system of delegated authority. 90 When the king dismissed the reforming prime minister, Moshir al-Dawleh, in September, he remained alive; henceforth, Iranian prime ministers could count on that after dismissal from high office. Even though the idea of the modem state gained currency and became the ideal of the reformers, repeated attempts to realize it by reorganizing and modernizing Qajar government ran into insurmountable obstacles and ended in failure.
This assertion can be sustained by the figure for government expenditure given in Table 5 (see Appendix). It should also be pointed out that distribution of benefices was fully sanctioned by the ethos of patrimonialism. By bestowing such benefices, the ruler became the benefactor (vali-ne'mat, literally "the lord of benefit") and the recipient became bound to him for having "tasted his salt," obligated to be loyal to the ruler's house and to pray for its prosperity and everlasting rule (du'a-gu'i) ,76 Not only did the Qajar state enable the official class and their retinue to enrich themselves from tax collection, tax farming, subdelegation of offices, and grants of land as tuyul, it also distributed about one-quarter of its annual revenue in the royal household and among the notables as pensions and allowances.
Real gains were made in strengthening central authority by Amir Nezam's reforms. Furthermore, improved communications, especially the creation of telegraph lines in the second half of the century, put provincial governors within instant reach of central government and greatly enhanced its authority. Reforms were halted for the best part of a decade with the dismissal of Amir Nezam, but Naser al-Din then carried out a number of successive administrative reorganizations in 1858, 1864, and 1866. These set up six centralized ministries, eliminating the position of prime minister and putting the ministers under the direct control of the Shah, but they proved unsatisfactory and Naser al-Din reverted to appointing Mirza Hosayn Khan Moshir al-Dawleh as prime minister in 1871.